Novaphos technologies produce several valuable commercial products, including phosphoric acid, J-Rox and sulfur products.
High-quality superphosphoric acid can be produced directly out of the Novaphos process. Impurity levels are low, typically less than 2%. This is because many of the impurities in the phosphate rock—including oxides of iron, aluminum and magnesium—stay in the J-Rox.
Image of Superphosphoric Acid
These are specifications for superphosphoric acid made in the Novaphos demonstration plant from high-MgO mine tailings from an existing phosphate rock mine. Note that fluorine levels are also low, low enough to qualify for use in animal feed phosphate products such as MCP. And none of the organic carbon in the phosphate rock is present in the superphosphoric acid, eliminating the need for any downstream carbon removal.
Technical Phosphoric Acid
Given the high quality of the Novaphos superphosphoric acid, it can be efficiently purified to make technical phosphoric acid, suitable for many applications, including highly soluble fertilizers like crystalline MAP and mono-potassium phosphate (MKP).
Image of LFPs, or Lithium Iron Phosphates
One important potential use Novaphos phosphoric acid is to improve the sustainability and security of the supply chain for LFP—lithium iron phosphate—for use in battery cathodes. Many companies that use batteries, such as Tesla and Ford, are adopting LFP for the batteries used in their products.
Novaphos technology can help serve this need with phosphoric acid made locally from waste materials and with no phosphogypsum waste.
Both Novaphos processes produce J-Rox, the solid calcium silicate product that remains after extracting the phosphate or sulfur content of the feed.
J-Rox are a useful and safe product with several valuable applications in construction and agriculture.
SCM: a replacement for cement in concrete or supplementary cementitious material. J-Rox can replace coal fly ash, which is mandated for durability in many concrete specifications and which has become increasing unavailable.
Specialized Aggregate: a porous, fine aggregate to help with internal curing of concrete or as a lightweight aggregate to reduce the weight of concrete structures. Alternatives sources for these kinds of specialized aggregates are in ever greater demand and costly to source.
Fertilizer: a source of plant available silicon (PAS), which is an important micronutrient for several agricultural products, including berries, vegetables, trees, nuts, rice, sugar cane, and turf grass.
Image of J-Rox
“We conclude that the proposed use of J-Rox in concrete-based road paving would result in negligible radiological impacts on workers and the public.”
— Oak Ridge Center for Risk Analysis, Inc.
J-Rox are non-toxic and safe. One question that often comes up is about radioactivity, as many people have heard about radioactivity in phosphogypsum. Third-party experts have assessed the risk of exposure to radiation from J-Rox made from phosphate rock tailings in Florida. Those studies have shown that J-Rox used in concrete roadways would have a negligible impact on workers and the public.
In fact, Florida J-Rox have a radon emanation profile (the major exposure pathway) that is 30-50 times less than phosphogypsum and lower even than native soil. This is because the naturally occurring radioactive elements in phosphate rock are encapsulated at the molecular level in the calcium silicate structure of J-Rox.
The sulfur gas stream from the Novaphos gypsum process can be used to make several products:
One of the most commonly used industrial chemicals, including in the wet-acid process for making phosphoric acid (and phosphogypsum).
Widely used as a fertilizer around the world.
Clean, Industrial Gypsum
Used in wall board and other applications, including as a soil amendment.